Different Landforms on the earth crust are caused by both endogenetic forces and exogenectic forces
The forces, which the affect crust of the earth, are divided into two broad categories on the basis of their sources of origin, they are Endogenetic Forces and Exogenetic Forces. The Endogenetic Forces (Diastroph forces, volcanic eruption, Earthquak etc.) give rise to several vertical irregularities, which leads to the formation of numerous varieties of relief features on the earth surface (e.g. Plateau, mountain, plain, lakes, faults, folds etc).
Compressional Forces and Tensional Forces. Due to compressional forces, the rock strata gets folded. For example Folded Mountain Himalaya
Faults : Cracks, Fractures and Faulting are included in it. Faults are formed due to the combined effect of both the compressional and tensional forces.
Rift valley are actually formed due to displacement of crustal parts and subsidence of middle portion between two normal faults. The Dead Sea of Jordan is located in a Rift valley.
When the middle portion remains at place and the two side blocks move downwards, the Block Mountains are formed. Satpura mountains in India, Black Forest and Vosages in Germany.
The main function of the exogenetic forces on the surface of the earth is denudation which includes, the processes of weathering and erosion.
Weathering: The process of disintegration and decomposition of rocks, due to physical, chemical or biological factors, at their own place is known as weathering. Based on the causes, the process of weathering is classified into three types:
Erosion: Large scale transportation of the weathered materials is termed as erosion
The area drained by a river and its tributaries known as River Basin Catchment Area. Differ landforms by a river are:
There are various kinds of Deltas such as :
Seawater carves different landforms with the help of sea-waves, currents, tidal waves or tsunamis
Glaciers : The moving ice mass down slope under the impact of gravity is called glacier. Snow line is generally defined as a zone between permanent and seasonal snow.
They formed on high mountains are long and narrow because they are formed in an abandoned river valley. These are known is 72 km long, is the largest of all the Indian glaciers. Different landforms carved out by glaciers are:
The wind is the most active agent of gradation in the arid and semi-arid regions where rainfall is very scanty and the ground surface is covered with loose particle of soil in the absence of both moisture and vegetation cover.
Mushroom-Rock : The rocks having broad upper part and narrow base resembling an umbrella or mushroom are called mushroom rocks. These are the result of abrasional work of wind in which the base of the rock is abraded rigorously.
Sand Dunes: The heaps or mounds of sand deposited by wind, are called sand dunes. Sand dunes keep their position changing the direction of wind. Sand dunes of crescentic shape having two horns are called Barchans. Loess: Loess plain are the extensive plains formed by the deposition of very thin soild particles brought by the wind in the outskirt of the desert region. Loess turns into very fertile soil when it gets water.
Playa: The temporary lakes created by the ephemeral streams in the bolsons, i.e. basins enclosed by hills in desert regions are called playas.
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